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A Glance at the cause of failure of two Decades US Occupation of Afghanistan

Fateh Sami

4/10//2021

Part – 3

American Imported Regimes Liable for Current Chaotic Situation in Afghanistan:

Despite good opportunities to strengthen the capacity building of the productive sectors and job creation with huge financial aids, it was feasible to facilitate the ground for balanced development in all parts of the country for the interest of the masses. But in the Ashraf Ghani and Karzai Regimes, selfish, self-centred, narrow-minded, ethnocentric, corrupt, and exploitative people at the head of the hierarchy did not allow this opportunity to be used appropriately for the benefit and welfare of all and to raise the standard of living of people, especially the deprived and vulnerable classes of society.

So that every individual regardless of their racial, linguistic, and religious affiliations could enjoy equals rights, equal opportunity, and could have feelings of dependence and responsibility.

But as we are witnessing the people put as leaders somehow are being connected to the foreign intelligence agencies of the countries that occupied Afghanistan for two decades, fulfilling their own strategic and regional goals according to guidelines of the multinational companies.

They were given a sort of legitimacy by ostentatious, ridiculous, and fake elections. Hamid Karzai and Ashraf Ghani, two were supporters of their ethnic sovereignty, paving the way for widespread corruption by sidelining specialized individuals, appointing non-professional and their affiliated ministers in all social, military, security, economic, educational, and training sectors.

The cooperation and strengthening of the Taliban and ISIS terrorist groups and the creation of obstacles for the National Army in the fight against the terror groups facilitated the deliberate overthrow of the government and replaced it by the Taliban, Pakistan’s proxies.

The spread of corruption in all areas in Afghanistan became one of the main reasons for the fall of the regime in favour of Pakistan supporting the Taliban for about three decades. Not only is the United States experiencing defeat in Afghanistan, but it has also committed a grave sin against the Afghan people when it signed peace agreements with the most vicious human rights violators (the Taliban) to undermine freedom, democracy, and human rights of the Afghan people. He buried extremist Islamists such as the Taliban, ISIS, and al-Qaeda.

God knows, and history has shown that the United States officially handed over a great nation like a flock of sheep for slaughter to a minority of 5,000 terrorists, and the world was moved by the depth of the tragedy as international forces withdrew from Afghanistan at Kabul airport, without achieving a peace deal.  They sit and watch silently.

Anti -Taliban Protest around the world: 

After the Taliban takeover of Kabul, the protests and demonstrations in Afghanistan and abroad indicate that the terror group of Taliban are very unpopular in Afghanistan, and they were able to capture Kabul with the direct help of ISI and ethnic conspiracy of Ashraf Ghani and Hamid Karzai. Moreover, Zalmay Khalilzad, the American special envoy, in the name of peace for twenty years was busy throwing dust in everyone’s eyes. His mission was for the destruction of Afghanistan, the annihilation of its people, frustration for the US statesman, draining US taxpayers, causing disgraceful, embarrassing fiasco for the US statesmanship.  

There was a huge demonstration in front of the British parliament in London on the recent chaotic situation about the occupation of Afghanistan by Pakistan and its proxies, the Taliban. Three Afghan ladies who are well educated and have children went on hunger strike to raise their voices to the world community.  They have gathered in front of the British parliament for the freedom and independence of their country. The purpose of the gathering is to attract the attention of all their compatriots wherever they are living to act unanimously.

Three Afghan ladies who left their children at home, while their husbands were taking care of them, started a hunger strike. They were saying, “we have come here, the British parliament, to respect the rights of all people in Afghanistan, irrespective of their ethnicities, gender, religion, language or place of residence.

The BBC journalist who visited the area had recorded a short video, but we do not know how that will be broadcast, but there was no coverage of the gathering or the hunger strike. The western media kept silent. Therefore, they request that the people who are supporting, peace, justice and fairness should listen to our voice. Some Parliament member got their submission and promised to make an opponent with them, but not known when that will happen.

They want all other people to get united in solidarity and raise their voices unanimously. They apologised if could not speak consistently because they were very tired and with low energy. They were saying, we should not allow silencing the voice of our new generation through horror and terror.

What unlucky people we are that we are asking a foreign country to bring peace and tranquillity to our country. We are very stressed about this situation. We are now the slave of the slaves. Pakistan was a slave of the British.   The Taliban want to suffocate the voices of ladies at gunpoint or by whipping beating and spanking, punching and striking with lashes.

However, we suffered from the strike, but we learned about the ladies, children and people who have no food, sleep with an empty stomach, are confined within the four walls of a room, being uneducated and deprived of their natural rights. They are begging on the streets and have no time to raise their children. During the past seven days, we feel very well about those ladies who are living in our country in poverty and starvation because of the imposed war on us. However, we spent a short time in Afghanistan but feel petty for those who are living in horror and fear because of the inhumane behaviour of the Taliban and the ambitious policy of Pakistan which are trying to plunder our natural resources and minerals.

They asked people not to live lavishly but give charity to the poor people in Afghanistan. They requested to contribute any amount which they can afford to assist the poor. They also raise their voice for the liberty and education of other ladies in Afghanistan, stressing that how a lady can educate her children if they are imprisoned like an animal in a cage.

You know that today a Pakistani girl represent and talk on our behalf in the United Nations. Why we should not be allowed to represent ourselves. The cruel, uncivilised, extremist Taliban want us to be covered in a veil. They cannot impose on us their nomadic culture.

In the end, they asked for the solidarity of all people of Afghanistan for establishing a government where everybody should feel equal and with equal rights. We are struggling for people living in Afghanistan, no matter was, Kabul, Qandahar, Herat, Badakhshan etc. We should all get united.

Afghanistan Trapped in Foreign Game: 

After the withdrawal of American forces and the fall of Kabul to the Taliban most likely the balance of power in the region will temporarily change. Afghanistan’s geopolitical location at the crossroads of the Middle East has been of particular importance to foreign powers to dominate Afghanistan, using its border with Central Asia, China, India, and Iran. That is why it has been the focus of all aggressive powers in history. Likewise, during the Taliban’s era, different forces will try to be present in this country with various goals.

Although the United States withdrew from Afghanistan, it could still try to expand its influence either directly or indirectly to contextualise pressure on China and destabilize China’s Xinjiang province. If a previous alliance is established between the Taliban and Saudi Arabia and Qatar, its main goal will be to export Wahhabi Islamic ideology to Central Asia.

But, due to the large financial exchanges between Saudi Arabia and China, China’s borders are probably not currently endangered, but because of gas rivalries between Russia and Saudi Arabia, Russia’s privacy is likely to be disturbed and insecure, as Russia completes NORD Stream-2 construction, gas flow project which has become a potential competitor for Saudi Arabia in the energy markets.

The difference between the US and Saudi efforts to influence the Taliban is that the US goal will be to contain China and create a belt against China, while the primary goal of Saudi Arabia will be Russia and its secondary goal will be Iran. Of course, this is unlikely because Pakistan’s security service is influenced by China. If Saudi Arabia does not reach an agreement with the Taliban, it will try to create an alternative for the Taliban inside Afghanistan by strengthening ISIS with the help of its former allies in creation of Taliban. 

On the other hand, there is another side consisting of China and Pakistan, which are trying to be present in Afghanistan with different goals. At the time of the Soviet invasion, Saudi Arabia was assisting the Taliban through Pakistani security services, but now the situation has changed, and Pakistan is following China. Today, the most likely issue is that China and Pakistan are pursuing two goals in the first place with the Taliban advancing:

Firstly, to drive the United States and US bases out of its neighbourhood and to be dominated by Pakistani security agencies. With the withdrawal of the Americans from Afghanistan and the advance of the Taliban, China somehow got rid of the Americans in its neighbourhood. Of course, if China also reaches an agreement with the Taliban and the Taliban have no incentive to spread their ideology and fundamentalism in Xinjiang province, China will have achieved its goal.

Secondly, China’s goal in Afghanistan and its relationship with the Taliban could be to limit India’s presence in the country. India has had a large presence in Afghanistan in recent years. Pakistan and China are both regional rivals of India, and the spread of the Taliban in Afghanistan would jeopardize India’s interests in the country and limit its presence in Afghanistan. On the other hand, India’s land plan to build a route to the port of Chabahar, which could restrain the plan of the Chinese Silk Road to the port of Goatherd.

Thirdly, China’s goal is to somehow dominate the Taliban and exploit them. China realises that Taliban ideology could be a problem in the region to many supporters in Pakistan so would be cautious to counter it. It would be less costly if the Taliban ideology is used as a lever of pressure in regional and global equations. In addition, if China takes control of the Taliban and somehow controls the Muslims of Xinjiang province over time, it will reduce the risk of extremism spreading in Central Asia, which is in Russia’s national interest. But due to the extensive presence of Daesh in the ranks of the Taliban and being the proxies of ISI, it cannot be expected that they will change their previous behaviour.

Another goal of China in bringing the Taliban under control is to extinguish the fire if extremist groups such as ISIS try to appear in the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) region in future. But the Taliban do not have the power to confront all extremist and terrorist groups such as ISIS because they have the same ideology. However, the presence of an irregular guerrilla group such as ISIS and others could also be dangerous for the Chinese military.

It is also worth noting that if China reaches a full agreement with the Taliban on the Silk Road and the Taliban secure the road in exchange for economic benefits, a shorter route will be added to the Silk Road. But given the fact that the Taliban has many internal differences and is influenced by many extremist groups the conflict within the ranks of the Taliban administration will intensify for power every day, so it seems practically impossible for China to achieve its goal easily.

India, which could have been connected to Afghanistan and through it to Iran and the Middle East through the disputed Kashmir region, parts of which both India and Pakistan claim, would effectively stand as a hotbed of conflict. Therefore, India needs to act before Pakistan can consolidate its influence through the Taliban in Afghanistan. The best option would be to attack Pakistan and that will bring many securities and economic problems to that country.

According to experts, the recent developments in Afghanistan will present two propositions to the Russians in the future. First, the Taliban, as in the past, will export their ideology to Central Asia and send terrorism and insecurity to Central Asia, which will create many problems for Russia and create a kind of confrontation between Russia and the Taliban. But the second proposition is that the Taliban should govern themselves within the framework of Afghanistan and, under Chinese control, which has good relations with the Russians, refrain from exporting ideology and terrorism to Central Asia, which is very unlikely because the Taliban is composed of various extremist groups.

Finally, in the current game Iran will be impacted unpredictably on the condition that the security rivalry between Iran and Pakistan in the region does not intensify in the future, because in any case, the Taliban is more under the control of the Pakistani security services than any other country. If the Taliban repeats the behaviour of 20 years ago with Iran and its people, then Iran and the Taliban will face confrontation. Evidence shows that the Taliban has not changed and even have become harsher than 20 years back.

Another issue that threatens the Taliban’s rise to power in Iran is that Iran and the Taliban will not clash if the Taliban take a path that leads to independence and reform their behaviour, but only if the Taliban turn Afghanistan into a Pakistani colony. It is also possible that regional rivalries between Iran and Pakistan will escalate in the future, and this could start inside Afghanistan if a direct or indirect conflict arises between Iran and Pakistan.

Pakistan’s ongoing covert interventions have become public and global, with undeniable evidence of its recent interventions briefed as follows:

Pakistan is one of the most important players in the region that has had the greatest impact on the Taliban and has been a key US ally in Afghanistan since the creation of the Taliban in 1996.

* Lobbying to encourage countries to formally recognize the Taliban

* ISI chief visits Kabul and selects interim cabinet of Taliban administration

* Bombing of the “National Resistance Forces” by Pakistani Air Force

* Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan has accused other countries, Tajikistan, pretending of not interfering in Afghanistan’s affairs to divert the world’s attention.

* Pakistan is lobbying to release Afghanistan’s foreign exchange reserves from the USA to get an access to it.

* Pakistan is a haven for terrorists from where they are sent to Afghanistan and other countries.

Pakistan as the US strategy in Afghanistan and the region has been playing a major role in Taliban building projects including their political, ideological, administrative, and organisational affairs.

According to published reports, Pakistan’s intelligence service has played a major role in shaping the Taliban and helping the group, with Islamabad being one of the first countries to recognize the Taliban in 2001.

Some Afghan experts attribute the rapid advance of Taliban fighters and the domino effect control of cities and provincial capitals shortly after the withdrawal of NATO and US troops from Afghanistan to the help of Pakistani commanders.

According to eyewitnesses and reports from Panjshir Resistance Forces, after the Pakistani intelligence chief visited Kabul in the past few days, about 500 Pakistani commandos were stationed in the mountains around Panjshir to lead the Taliban attack on Panjshir.

Maulvi Habibullah Hussam, chairman of the Islamic Brotherhood Council of Afghanistan, who is in Panjshir, announced Pakistani airstrikes on resistance forces and the people.

Zia Arianjad, a former representative of Samangan province, also wrote on his Facebook that Pakistani drones bombed Panjshir province with smart bombs last night.

It is necessary to support the “National Resistance forces” in Afghanistan: 

In the current situation, only the mobilization of patriotic forces and supporting the national resistance forces against ethnic fascism, without previous tendencies, ideological and political affiliation, are important for the preservation of our identity, cultural values, and the Persian language.

Currently, every effort is being made by the Taliban to forcefully displace people from their original place of residence. In the manner of Abdul Rahman Khan, the notorious dictator as did in the past. The process of forced migration of people in the Daikundi district stands as an example. The Hazara minority is currently endangered like the era of the tyrant Abdul Rahman Khan. A decisive and purposeful policy is necessary. Any negligence has irreparable consequences.

Pakistan’s economic goals in Afghanistan

India and Pakistan have always competed to strengthen their economic position in South Asia as well as in Central Asia. Efforts by the two countries to attract Western attention to use their trading ports to access Central Asian energy resources are among the components of this competition.

Therefore, access to the Central Asian market and the transfer of oil and gas to these countries has been one of the most important economic and influential factors in Pakistan’s policy. Regional rivalry over Central Asia and the Caspian Sea’s rich energy resources is seen as the biggest factor in Pakistan and US support for the Taliban in the late 1990s, as these countries saw the Mujahideen government as a major obstacle to such a policy in Afghanistan. They wanted to support the Taliban, which could gain economic benefits by gaining full power in Afghanistan, thereby gaining access to Central Asian energy markets. But the main goal of Pakistan is to access to the mineral reserves of Afghanistan since 1967 according to a Pakistani general. 

Central Asian countries have always viewed the transfer of oil and gas through a pipeline that runs through one of the two countries, Iran, and Afghanistan, as a major issue. On the other hand, the passage of the oil and gas pipeline of these countries from any territory will undoubtedly bring some political and economic benefits to that country. Pakistan’s economic view of this can be analysed from two angles.

From the point of view of economic benefits from crossing this oil line, and through economic competition with Iran and influence in Central Asian countries, we saw the second case when Pakistan, after Iran’s economic movements in Central Asia, sought to revive the Asian transit route. Central – Afghanistan – Pakistan to divert Central Asia’s line of communication with the Oman Sea and the Indian Ocean via the Silk Road.

However, as the formation of a pro-Pakistan government in Kabul will serve Pakistan’s economic interests in the region and Central Asia, Pakistan’s diplomatic stance on the Taliban will rise from a supportive stance to a naked intervention to consolidate their sovereignty.

Central Asian countries have always viewed the transfer of oil and gas through a pipeline that runs through one of the two countries, Iran, and Afghanistan, as a major issue. On the other hand, the passage of the oil and gas pipeline of these countries from any territory will undoubtedly bring some political and economic benefits to that country. Pakistan’s economic view of this can be analysed from two angles.

From the point of view of economic benefits from crossing this oil line, and through economic competition with Iran and influence in Central Asian countries, we saw the second case when Pakistan, after Iran’s economic movements in Central Asia, sought to revive the Asian transit route. Central – Afghanistan – Pakistan to divert Central Asia’s line of communication with the Oman Sea and the Indian Ocean via the Silk Road.

However, as the formation of a pro-Pakistan government in Kabul will serve Pakistan’s economic interests in the region and Central Asia, Pakistan’s diplomatic stance on the Taliban will rise from a supportive stance to a naked intervention to consolidate their sovereignty.

Pakistani political goals

Several phenomena play a more prominent role in Pakistan’s political goals in Afghanistan than other variables. These include border disputes with Afghanistan and Pashtun issues, rivalry with India, alignment with the West, especially the United States, and countering Iranian influence. The Afghanistan-Pakistan border dispute has always been a historically critical factor in the history of the two countries diplomatic relations.

What was given to Pakistan by the British envoy under the famous Durand Line during the reign of Abdul Rahman Khan has never been erased from the historical memory of Afghans, especially the nationalist spectrum of political rule, and has always been a point of contention in the two countries’ foreign relations? The Durand Line is the borderline that separates the eastern regions of Afghanistan and the western regions of Pakistan, which has created an unstable situation between the two countries.

Accordingly, Pakistan seeks to prevent the effectiveness of a government that, by reclaiming land, is fomenting conflict between the two countries. This is of great importance for Islamabad in the future political governance of Afghanistan.

A stable government in Afghanistan will likely raise this border-legal dispute in international forums. On this basis, the Pakistani authorities believed that the ideology of the Taliban would help the Afghans to forget the border and ethnic conflicts and to follow the path of Islamabad. However, Pakistan in competition with India worries that increasing Indian acceptance in Afghanistan could lead to an increase in Afghans’ sensitivity to the disputed border. 

Pakistan’s economic goals in Afghanistan

India and Pakistan have always competed to strengthen their economic position in South Asia as well as in Central Asia. Efforts by the two countries to attract Western attention to use their trading ports to access Central Asian energy resources are among the components of this competition. Therefore, access to the Central Asian market and the transfer of oil and gas to these countries has been one of the most important economic and influential factors in Pakistan’s policy.

Regional rivalry over Central Asia and the Caspian Sea’s rich energy resources is seen as the biggest factor in Pakistan and US support for the Taliban in the late 1990s, as these countries saw the Mujahideen government as a major obstacle to such a policy in Afghanistan. They wanted to support the Taliban, which could gain economic benefits by gaining full power in Afghanistan, thereby gaining access to Central Asian energy markets.

Central Asian countries have always viewed the transfer of oil and gas through a pipeline that runs through one of the two countries, Iran, and Afghanistan, as a major issue. On the other hand, the passage of the oil and gas pipeline of these countries from any territory will undoubtedly bring some political and economic benefits to that country. Pakistan’s economic view of this can be analysed from two angles.

From the point of view of economic benefits from crossing this oil line, and through economic competition with Iran and influence in Central Asian countries, we saw the second case when Pakistan, after Iran’s economic movements in Central Asia, sought to revive the Asian transit route. Central – Afghanistan – Pakistan to divert Central Asia’s line of communication with the Oman Sea and the Indian Ocean via the Silk Road.

However, as the formation of a pro-Pakistan government in Kabul will serve Pakistan’s economic interests in the region and Central Asia, Pakistan’s diplomatic stance on the Taliban will rise from a supportive stance to a naked intervention to consolidate their sovereignty.

Pakistan and the idea of ​​proxy occupation of Afghanistan; Islamabad is sorely mistaken.

India and Pakistan have always competed to strengthen their economic position in South Asia as well as in Central Asia. Efforts by the two countries to attract Western attention to use their trading ports to access Central Asian energy resources are among the components of this competition. Therefore, access to the Central Asian market and the transfer of oil and gas to these countries has been one of the most important economic and influential factors in Pakistan’s policy.

Regional rivalry over Central Asia and the Caspian Sea’s rich energy resources is seen as the biggest factor in Pakistan and US support for the Taliban in the late 1990s, as these countries saw the Mujahideen government as a major obstacle to such a policy in Afghanistan. They wanted to support the Taliban, which could gain economic benefits by gaining full power in Afghanistan, thereby gaining access to Central Asian energy markets.

Central Asian countries have always viewed the transfer of oil and gas through a pipeline that runs through one of the two countries, Iran, and Afghanistan, as a major issue. On the other hand, the passage of the oil and gas pipeline of these countries from any territory will undoubtedly bring some political and economic benefits to that country. Pakistan’s economic view of this can be analysed from two angles.

From the point of view of economic benefits from crossing this oil line, and through economic competition with Iran and influence in Central Asian countries, we saw the second case when Pakistan, after Iran’s economic movements in Central Asia, sought to revive the Asian transit route. Central – Afghanistan – Pakistan to divert Central Asia’s line of communication with the Oman Sea and the Indian Ocean via the Silk Road

However, as the formation of a pro-Pakistan government in Kabul will serve Pakistan’s economic interests in the region and Central Asia, Pakistan’s diplomatic stance on the Taliban will rise from a supportive stance to a naked intervention to consolidate their sovereignty.

Pakistan political goals

Several phenomena play a more prominent role in Pakistan’s political goals in Afghanistan than other variables; These include border disputes with Afghanistan and Pashtun issues, rivalry with India, alignment with the West, especially the United States, and countering Iranian influence. The Afghanistan-Pakistan border dispute has always been a historically critical factor in the history of the two countries diplomatic relations.

What was given to Pakistan by the British envoy under the famous Durand Line during the reign of Abdul Rahman Khan has never been erased from the historical memory of Afghans, especially the nationalist spectrum of political rule, and has always been a point of contention in the two countries’ foreign relations? The Durand Line is the borderline that separates the eastern regions of Afghanistan and the western regions of Pakistan, which has created an unstable situation between the two countries.

Accordingly, Pakistan seeks to prevent the effectiveness of a government that, by reclaiming land, is fomenting conflict between the two countries. This is of great importance for Islamabad in the future political governance of Afghanistan.

A stable government in Afghanistan will likely raise this border-legal dispute in international forums. On this basis, the Pakistani authorities believed that the ideology of the Taliban would help the Afghans to forget the border and ethnic conflicts and to follow the path of Islamabad. However, Pakistanis in competition with the Indians worry that increasing Indian acceptance in Afghanistan could lead to an increase in Afghans’ sensitivity to the disputed border. Support for the marginalized Free Pashtun movement, which is making Pakistan’s eastern border with Afghanistan vulnerable, is a serious concern for Pakistanis, some Analysts believe. But it cannot be true. 

Pakistan and the idea of proxy occupation of Afghanistan; Islamabad is sorely mistaken.

The ISI chief’s visit to Kabul in the current context should be seen in the light of such records, of which only a very small part of the headlines was mentioned. His visit, which was unusually obvious and public, was at the same time a source of pride and a display of Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan.

Some Pakistani officials and media outlets said the trip was to expand trade between the two countries and address border issues. It is unlikely that these officials and the media expected anyone to believe these statements and the connection of these matters to the head of the ISI.

Today, the name of Pakistan is becoming more and more associated with the name of the Afghan Taliban in the public opinion of the people of this country and the people of the region and the world. The Pakistani intelligence chief’s visit to Kabul at a time when the Taliban government has not yet been formed and the Taliban officials who are supposed to oversee Afghanistan’s foreign policy have not been appointed have raised doubts about Pakistan’s role in the country. There have been reports from local sources about Pakistan’s involvement in drone strikes and airstrikes against Panjshir, the killing of an Afghan general and a spokesman for the Afghan Resistance Front, and the Pakistani intelligence official’s role in the attacks, as well as efforts to facilitate the formation of a Taliban government. Public demonstrations in various cities in Afghanistan and several cities around the world, including Tehran, where anti-Pakistani slogans were also heard against the Taliban, are a foreign manifestation of these protests. In Iran, too, public opinion has widely expressed its opposition to Pakistan’s interference in Afghanistan on social media and social networks.

Pakistan has been collaborating closely with the Taliban, a ruthless terrorist group, at all stages, including its formation, its five-year rule, the Taliban era as an insurgent group, and now in the Taliban’s quest to form a government in Afghanistan.  Pakistan cut ties with the Taliban only a short time after the 9/11 attacks and the rejection of a US request to the Taliban to extradite or expel al-Qaeda leaders from Afghanistan. Of course, during that period, all Taliban leaders took refuge in Pakistan.

There is a consensus in government reports and credible academic research that Pakistan played a key role in establishing the Taliban in October 1994. Nasrullah Babar, a former Pakistani military and interior minister boasted that the Taliban had been created under his command and did not refer to the Taliban as “my children”. Babur’s attempt to create the Taliban was largely geopolitical. He wanted Afghanistan as Pakistan’s strategic depth against India, as well as a way for Pakistan to gain access to Central Asia. There is a consensus that since 1994 Pakistan has been free of all restrictions in all areas, including financing Taliban operations and personnel, recruiting and training Taliban personnel, planning and directing their operations, and delivering weapons, ammunition and fuel to the Taliban and have provided logistical and operational support to them and, ultimately, diplomatic support to the group. Pakistan has also been reluctant to send Pakistanis to fight alongside the Taliban.

According to Ahmad Rashid, around 80,000 to 100,000 Pakistanis were trained by the Pakistani military and fought alongside the Taliban between 1994 and 1999. Other reputable academics, such as Peter Thomson, have confirmed the direct presence of Pakistani officers and soldiers alongside the Taliban. In fact, at times the number of Pakistanis involved in the war in Afghanistan has exceeded that of the Afghan Taliban. A 1998 State Department report confirmed that between 20 and 40 per cent of the Taliban were Pakistani nationals. 

Strangely enough, Pakistan has always encouraged extremist tendencies in the Taliban and supported the Taliban’s most extremist faction, the Haqqani Network. In a report to the US Senate on September 22, 2011, Gen. Michael Mullen, then Chief of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, described the role of the ISI (Pakistan Army Intelligence Service) in leading the Haqqani network, including against US forces in Afghanistan. “The truth is that the operations of the Quetta Taliban Council and the Haqqani Network are being carried out from Pakistan without any problems,” he said. He said extremist organizations were attacking civilians, Afghan soldiers and US troops on behalf of the Pakistani government. “The Haqqani network, which has been with Pakistan for years, is in many ways a strategic arm of the ISI,” he said. “

Although countries’ interference in each other’s affairs is in clear contradiction with international law, in practice such interventions sometimes take place. But that one country should try to publicly take another whole country and its population of about 35-40 million and innocent hostage by force and by creating a group of tens of thousands of people and try to use it as a tool for its geopolitical purposes, it may be unprecedented in the history of international relations.

Pakistan’s policy towards Afghanistan is also a disregard for the legitimate interests of Afghanistan’s other neighbours. Disrespect for the rights of all ethnic groups and the civil rights of all Afghans. Undoubtedly, the people of Afghanistan and the young population of that country, which has flourished in recent decades, will not accept such humiliation, and will resist it.

To be continued …